Nutritional counseling frequency and baseline food pattern predict implementation of a high-protein and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary pattern: 1-year results of the randomized NutriAct trial.
Background & aims
NutriAct is a 36-month randomized controlled multi-center trial designed to analyze the effects of a food pattern focusing on a high-protein and high-unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) intake on healthy aging. We aimed to determine factors associated with a successful modulation of dietary pattern after 12 months in elderly participants.
502 participants were randomized into either usual care control group including dietary recommendations of the German Nutrition Society (DGE) or an intervention group, which used supplementation of rapeseed oil and specifically designed foods as well as repetitive advices to implement a food pattern based on high intake of predominantly plant proteins, UFA and fiber (NutriAct pattern). Food intake was repeatedly assessed by 3-day food records at months 0, 3, 6 and 12. Linear regression models were used to investigate determinants of basal food intake and modulation of dietary pattern during the intervention.
Food records of 242 intervention and 246 control participants (median age 66 y, 37% males) were available at baseline and were included. At baseline, high BMI was related to higher protein and saturated fatty acids and lower fiber intake. The intervention resulted in higher intake of protein, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA) and fiber, and lower carbohydrate and saturated fatty acid consumption (all p < 0.001). While individuals who were already at baseline closer to the NutriAct pattern also achieved a diet closer to the proposed pattern at month 12, the strongest absolute changes (%E) of dietary behavior were seen in those with dietary patterns further away from the proposed pattern at baseline. Attendance to nutritional sessions was crucial to change MUFA, PUFA, fiber and carbohydrate intake.
A successful modification of dietary pattern was achieved by the performed intervention within 12 months. Baseline dietary habits and attendance to nutritional sessions were substantial determinants predicting changes in dietary pattern.